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Crystals in urine occur when there are too many minerals in your urine and not enough liquid. The tiny pieces collect and form masses. These crystals may be found during urine tests (urinalysis). Having crystals in your urine is called crystalluria.
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If the crystals are a result of taking certain medication, your healthcare provider might be able to switch your medication or dosage. If the crystals point to some type of disease, then your healthcare provider will treat that condition.
Crystalluria, or having crystals in your urine, is relatively common. Crystals can be found in the urine of people who are completely healthy and in the urine of people who have some type of illness. They might be found on a routine urine test or if your healthcare provider suspects another condition. One of the best ways to prevent crystals from developing is by drinking enough fluids.
2: Mosenthin R, Sauer WC, de Lange CF. Tracer studies of urea kinetics ingrowing pigs: I. The effect of intravenous infusion of urea on urea recyclingand the site of urea secretion into the gastrointestinal tract. J Anim Sci.
It's normal to have a few small crystals in your urine. But certain types of crystals may stick together and become kidney stones, which are hard, pebble-like pieces of material that form in the kidneys. Kidney stones can be as small as a grain of sand or as big as a pea or even larger. The acidity of your urine and can affect how stones form.
A crystals in urine test is often part of a urinalysis, a test that measures different substances in your urine. A urinalysis is used to check your general health, including the health of your urinary tract and kidneys. It may include a visual check of your urine sample, tests for certain chemicals, and an examination under a microscope to look for certain types of cells.
A crystals in urine test is part of a microscopic exam of urine. It may be used to help diagnose kidney stones. A crystals in urine test may also help diagnose a problem with your metabolism, the process of how your body uses food and energy. Problems with metabolism can affect both the amount of minerals in your urine and the amount of substances that prevent minerals from forming crystals.
Your provider may also request that you collect all your urine during a 24-hour period. This is called a "24-hour urine sample test." It may provide more complete results because the amount of crystals and other substances in urine can vary throughout the day.
Having crystals in your urine doesn't always mean that you have a medical condition that needs treatment. If you have a small kidney stone, it may pass through your urine on its own with little or no pain. Also, certain medicines, your diet, not drinking enough fluids, and other things can lead to crystals in urine. If you have questions about your test results, talk with your provider.
Different minerals and other substances form different types of crystals in urine. A crystals in urine test can tell what type of crystals are in your urine. This information helps your provider understand why the crystals are forming and what would help reduce your risk for developing kidney stones in the future, such as:
n-alkane/urea inclusion compounds are prototypical examples of aperiodic crystals with uniformly aligned alkane guest molecules contained within linear channels formed by the supramolecular urea host. Here, we investigate single-crystal diffuse scattering, which is present in the form of sharp layers, from short-chain guest molecules (from octane to dodecane). The strong modulation of diffuse scattering within these layers shows that the positions of alkane molecules in neighboring channels are correlated. Using the three-dimensional difference pair distribution function method, we have extracted the effective interaction potentials and have shown that the interaction is mediated by the relaxation of urea molecules.
Calculated and modeled diffuse scattering from the (hk01) (left) and (hk02) (right) s layers of the crystals in this paper. The diffuse scattering is presented in a shape of hexagons or clouds centered at the position of Bragg peaks. Reciprocal unit cell is essentially identical for all the crystals and is drawn for the hk1 layer of n-alkane compound.
Comparison between experiment and model 3D-ΔPDF map for n-dodecane/urea inclusion compound, sections uv0 and u0w. The strongest contrast represents the correlation between alkane molecules within the same channel (1), relaxation of urea walls around the alkanes (2), and correlation between alkane molecules in the neighboring channels (3).
Slow evaporation solution growth technique was adopted to grow good quality urea salicylic acid (USA) single crystals. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction confirmed their cell parameters and corresponding space group. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation was utilized to assess the frontier molecular orbital (FMO) and natural bonding orbitals (NBO) of the USA compound. Theoretically calculated bandgap energy was slightly different from the measured value of 3.49 eV and is utilized in understanding the charge transfer taking place in the molecule. The sample showed a lower cutoff wavelength of 350 nm. FTIR confirmed the presence of relevant functional groups and was found to be thermally stable up to 117 C. The specific heat capacity of the title compound was found to be 1.28 J/kg/K at 30 C. Laser damage threshold energy of USA crystal was found to be 1.37 GW/cm2. The electrical behaviour of the crystal was analysed from dielectric measurements. The mechanical stability revealed that the title compound is a soft material. Third-order nonlinear optical property of USA compound was analysed using standard Z-scan technique, which showed better characteristics compared to various reported comparable crystals.
It is a colorless, odorless solid, highly soluble in water, and practically non-toxic (LD50 is 15 g/kg for rats). Dissolved in water, it is neither acidic nor alkaline. The body uses it in many processes, most notably nitrogen excretion. The liver forms it by combining two ammonia molecules (NH3) with a carbon dioxide (CO2) molecule in the urea cycle. Urea is widely used in fertilizers as a source of nitrogen (N) and is an important raw material for the chemical industry.
In 1828 Friedrich Wöhler discovered that urea can be produced from inorganic starting materials, which was an important conceptual milestone in chemistry. This showed for the first time that a substance previously known only as a byproduct of life could be synthesized in the laboratory without biological starting materials, thereby contradicting the widely held doctrine of vitalism, which stated that only living organisms could produce the chemicals of life.
By virtue of its tendency to form porous frameworks, urea has the ability to trap many organic compounds. In these so-called clathrates, the organic "guest" molecules are held in channels formed by interpenetrating helices composed of hydrogen-bonded urea molecules.
As the helices are interconnected, all helices in a crystal must have the same molecular handedness. This is determined when the crystal is nucleated and can thus be forced by seeding. The resulting crystals have been used to separate racemic mixtures.
Urea is used in Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) reactions to reduce the NOx pollutants in exhaust gases from combustion from diesel, dual fuel, and lean-burn natural gas engines. The BlueTec system, for example, injects a water-based urea solution into the exhaust system. Ammonia (NH3) first produced by the hydrolysis of urea reacts with nitrogen oxides (NOx) and is converted into nitrogen gas (N2) and water within the catalytic converter. The conversion of noxious NOx to innocuous N2 is described by the following simplified global equation:
Being a solid highly soluble in water (545 g/L at 25 C), urea is much easier and safer to handle and store than the more irritant, caustic and hazardous ammonia (NH3), so it is the reactant of choice. Trucks and cars using these catalytic converters need to carry a supply of diesel exhaust fluid, also sold as AdBlue, a solution of urea in water.
Urea in concentrations up to 10 M is a powerful protein denaturant as it disrupts the noncovalent bonds in the proteins. This property can be exploited to increase the solubility of some proteins.A mixture of urea and choline chloride is used as a deep eutectic solvent (DES), a substance similar to ionic liquid. When used in a deep eutectic solvent, urea gradually denatures the proteins that are solubilized.
Urea can in principle serve as a hydrogen source for subsequent power generation in fuel cells. Urea present in urine/wastewater can be used directly (though bacteria normally quickly degrade urea). Producing hydrogen by electrolysis of urea solution occurs at a lower voltage (0.37 V) and thus consumes less energy than the electrolysis of water (1.2 V).
Urea-containing creams are used as topical dermatological products to promote rehydration of the skin. Urea 40% is indicated for psoriasis, xerosis, onychomycosis, ichthyosis, eczema, keratosis, keratoderma, corns, and calluses. If covered by an occlusive dressing, 40% urea preparations may also be used for nonsurgical debridement of nails. Urea 40% "dissolves the intercellular matrix" of the nail plate. Only diseased or dystrophic nails are removed, as there is no effect on healthy portions of the nail. This drug (as carbamide peroxide) is also used as an earwax removal aid.
Urea has also been studied as a diuretic. It was first used by Dr. W. Friedrich in 1892. In a 2010 study of ICU patients, urea was used to treat euvolemic hyponatremia and was found safe, inexpensive, and simple.
The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test is a measure of the amount of nitrogen in the blood that comes from urea. It is used as a marker of renal function, though it is inferior to other markers such as creatinine because blood urea levels are influenced by other factors such as diet, dehydration, and liver function. 041b061a72